Fedora 12 Kernel Update Issue

December 23, 2009

This articles is to help users resolve simple problem regarding kernel update. The most common problem is after a kernel update is when the system fails to boot. Occasionally,  problems occurs with the kernel updates, you need to boot to previous kernel until further system update provides patches to the system.

Booting to Previous Kernel

  • When the system startup, press <Tab> few times to make sure the boot menu shows. If it doesn’t work, try a few times.
  • The <Tab> key must hit  the system when the system boots up.
  • IF you manage to get the boot menu, move the arrow key and select the previous kernel release.

Configure Boot Menu to use Previous Kernel

  • Once you are into the system, you need to configure the boot menu such that it boots to the previous kernel.
  • Use your favorite editor and open the  file /boot/grub/grub.conf using root access.
  • In the menu, change the default to 1.

Configure Boot Menu to show Boot Menu

  • To avoid hitting <tab> key many time to display the boot menu, you might want to change some entries in the grub.conf file.
  • Open the file /boot/grub/grub.conf.
  • Under the entry timeout=0, change it to timeout=2. This allows the boot menu to show for 2 seconds.
  • Hash out the #hiddenmenu. This will show the boot menu.
  • Every time when you start the machine, the boot menu will display for 2 seconds.

Drivers Failed after Kernel Update

  • Unfortunately, some driver which you’ve installed manually usually failed after kernel update. There is nothing much you can do except to reinstall all the proprietary drivers after kernel update.
  • The most common driver issue are video drivers and sound drivers.
  • If you’ve install proprietary Nvidia drivers to run Compiz. You need to reinstall the drivers every time when there is a new update on the kernel.
  • If you do not have a sound driver for your sound card and resort to use ALSA generic sound driver. You need to reinstall the drivers.

Install and Using Beesu on Fedora 12

December 16, 2009
A common utility for running GNOME application using root privileges is gksu and gksudo. Currently these 2 applications are under reviewed by Fedora. Therefore, these packages are not available in the Fedora repository. For Fedora user there is an alternative package called Beesu. Beesu is the alternative package to use to open GNOME application such as Nautilus using root privileges.

Installing Beesu

  • Open a terminal window with root access (su-)
  • Use the following command to install Beesu
    • #yum install beesu
    • #yum install nautilus-beesu-manager

Using Beesu

  • To use Beesu to open Nautilus with root access, use the following procedure:
  • Open a terminal window with normal access, use the following command (use either one)
    • #beesu nautilus
    • #beesu nautilus –browser

Configuring Nautilus with Beesu

The above method is workable. However, it is very cumbersome to open a terminal window every time you want to open Nautilus with root access. Using the package Nautilus Beesu Package, we can configure Nautilus by installing some scripts that uses Beesu function. The procedure for installing such scripts is as follows:

Configuring Nautilus with Beesu

  • Open a terminal windows
  • Run the Nautilus Beesu configuration program with the command
  • $nautilus-beesu-manager
  • A Window will pop-up and you have to choose which script to install. At least choose “Open Nautilus here”. It is also recommended to install the script “Open with gEdit”

Using Nautilus with Beesu Script

  • After installation is done, you can open the normal file browser and navigate to any system folder you might need to access with root privileges.
  • Right-click the system folder and select Scripts >> beesu >> Open Nautilus here
  • Another Nautilus window will appear with root privileges.
  • If you want to be able to edit any script file or configuration file freely, install the script “Open with gEdit”.
  • After the installation, point to any script or configuration file you want to modify with root privileges, right-click and select Scripts >> beesu >> Open with gEdit.
  • gEdit will open the selected script file or configuration file with root access. You don’t have to open a new Nautilus window


How to Open Nautilus as Root

December 16, 2009

There are basically 2 ways to open nautilus as root

Using sudo Command

The simple way is to configure current user to use sudo.

The procedure of configuring sudo is as follows:

  1. Open a terminal window with root privileges using the command below:
  2. #su –
  3. After entering password proceed with the following command to open the sudo file
  4. #visudo
  5. This vi utility will check if your entry is correct. Use visudo instead of vi /etc/sudoers
  6. In the sudo file, remove the # from the statement %wheel  ALL=(ALL)       ALL
  7. Next, open the group file using vi as follows:
  8. #vi /etc/group
  9. Under the entry wheel:x:10:root, append the current login name after root as follows:
  10. wheel:x:10:root,username
  11. Save the file. Now the current user can perform sudo command
  • To open Nautilus as root use the command from the terminal without root access,
  • $sudo nautilus
  • or
    • $sudo nautilus --browser.
  • File browser will open with root access.
  • You can perform the above command in the background as follows (use either command):
    • $sudo nautilus &
    • $sudo nautilus --browser &
  • The other way is to install and use the software package Beesu. Check out this post for details: Installing and Using Beesu on Fedora 12


    Linux Graphical Desktop Environment (X Window/GNOME/KDE)

    December 15, 2009

    X Window / GUI Desktop Environment

    For graphics user interface environment in Linux, there are 2 basic components:

    • The X window system which provides the basic frame work
    • Desktop environment such as GNOME, KDE, XFCE and LXDE

    Installing GUI Desktop Environment

    Installing GUI and desktop environment from text based console

    • Installing GNOME
      • #yum groupinstall ‘X Window System’
      • #yum groupinstall ‘GNOME Desktop Environment’
    • Installing KDE
      • #yum groupinstall ‘X Window System’
      • #yum groupinstall ‘KDE (K Desktop Environment)’
    • Installing XFCE
      • #yum groupinstall ‘X Window System’
      • #yum groupinstall ‘XFCE’
    • Installing LXDE
      • #yum groupinstall ‘X Window System’
      • #yum groupinstall ‘LXDE’

    Starting X Windows

    • To start X Windows from a text based console use the command:
      • $ startx

    Ending X Windows

    • To ending X Window / GNOME session and returning to command prompt, just logout from the session.
    • If it fails press Ctrl+Alt+Backspace to end your GNOME session.
    • Alternatively, press Ctrl+Alt+F1 to return to where you first ran startx, and then press Ctrl+C to kill the desktop.

    GNOME Desktop Environment

    For GNOME, it comprise of different components, they are:

    • The X window system which provides the basic frame work
    • Desktop environment GNOME including GNOME panels and GNOME desktop
    • Metacity Window manager which provides the basic of controlling Window
    • Nautilus file manager
    • Fedora desktop theme

    Metacity Useful Keyboard Shortcuts

    Alt+Esc Cycle between open windows Alt+Tab Cycle between windows on a window bar Ctrl+Alt+Left/Right Arrow Cycle between desktop workspace Ctrl+Alt+d (Windows Win+d) Show desktop
    • For details configuration of Metacity, run the command $gconf-editor as regular user. If this command is not available try #yum install gconf-editor.
    • This allows you to configure the keyboard shortcuts.
    • This is a behind the scene configuration and it is advisable for user to use the graphical tools instead.

    Virtual Terminal

    • You can switch between multiple console based virtual terminal using Ctrl+Alt+Function command.
    • Ctrl+Alt+F1 = terminal without prompt, with messages, this is the terminal that start x window
    • Ctrl+Alt+F2 to Ctrl+Alt+F6 give you full terminal window
    • Ctrl+Alt+F7 return to X Window

    Switching Desktop Environment

    • To switch between desktop environment just change the desktop environment under ‘Sessions’ during login time.

    Switching Desktop Environment for Console Based System (Run Level 3)

    • You do not need the following procedure if you are running at system level 5. This procedure is for user running at level 3 and using startx to launch window.
    • If you start Windows by startx command, you need to issue a command to switch desktop environment. You need to issue command $switchdesk KDE or $switchdesk GNOME. ($yum install switchdesk if you don’t have it.)
    • Alternatively, you can install a similar GUI tool switchdesk-gui. The program included 2 scripts .Xclients and .Xclients-default in the user root directory.  .Xclients-default contains the default desktop environment use by switchdesk. There is an entry WM=”gnome-session” or WM=”startkde” to indicate which desktop environment to use.

    Linux System Run Level and Startup

    • When Linux starts up, it enters into what is referred to as a run level or system state.
    • Typically, a system set to start at run level 5 boots to a graphical login prompt. A system set to run level 3 boots to a text prompt.
    • The run level is set by the initdefault line in the /etc/inittab file. (id:5:initdefault)
    • Init Level (/etc/inittab)
      • Level 0 – Halt
      • Level 1 – Single User Mode
      • Level 2 – Multiuser Mode without NFS
      • Level 3 – Full Multi User Mode
      • Level 4 – Unused
      • Level 5 – X11
      • Level 6 – Reboot

    X Window Startup

    • X server and login screen is started by prefdm script, if the system run level is 5.
    • The default login screen is GNOME display manager (gdm), which handles login session and start up the desktop environment.
    • Some processes are started from the scripts in the directory /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc.d
    • All windows problem are log at /var/log/Xorg.0.log

    X Window Configuration

    • The display settings run by system-config-display is store in the file /etc/X11/xorg.conf.
    • This configuration contains the video settings and even mouse and keyboard settings for X windows to use.
    • Further information is available at http://www.x.org

    Which Linux Distribution to Install?

    December 14, 2009

    Deciding which Linux distribution to install is more of a personal choice. You should install a few of them to see which version do you like. However, there are some characteristics that could identify among the different distribution. The most popular Linux distribution is Fedora and Ubuntu.


    If you are new in Linux, Ubuntu is the only choice. Ubuntu is design for people who are migrating from Windows or Mac. It is novice friendly and easy to use. Its documentation is very rich and clear. Ubuntu also has a very large support community. Furthermore, Ubuntu focus its feature enhancement more on the desktop experience. Compare to Fedora, Ubuntu is more concern of stability and therefore it won’t adopt any new technology that is too new and unstable.

    If you want a stable and user-friendly desktop experience, Ubuntu is the choice. If you do not like to tinker with operating system and just want to use it for normal usage, choose Ubuntu.


    Fedora, however, is the most technically advanced distribution. Any new technology will be adopted by Fedora first.  If you want the latest and most advanced technology, use Fedora. Therefore, Fedora is not as stable as Ubuntu. Sometime you would get a problematic kernel update which forces you to switch back to older kernel for a while. Fedora is more suitable for season Linux user who wants to try out the latest. You must not be afraid of tinkering with the operating system when using Fedora. If you are technically inclined but new to Linux, you could try Fedora. The support community for Fedora is good.

    For feature enhancement, Fedora is more concern of security and it may include enterprise feature which might not benefit you. Fedora is the test bed for trying out new technology before such technology is adopted by its sponsor Linux Red Hat in their enterprise operating system. If you are an IT professional considering adopting a new skills in Linux administration, Fedora is the choice. By learning Fedora, you will be sure that Linux Red Hat would adopt some of the technology eventually. For anyone who would like to learn some system administration that could help in their career in IT, Fedora is he choice.

    Enterprise: Linux Red Hat and CentOS

    In the enterprise market, Linux Red Hat is the most popular open source distribution. However, Linux Red Hat is not free. You can download Red Hat for a free trial. After which, you have to pay for any updates and support. For those looking to learn the skills in administering Linux Red Hat, you could use Fedora or CentOS. CentOS is very similar to Linux Red Hat. In fact, what CentOS did is to get the source code from Linux Red Hat, remove its trade mark and marketed as CentOS.

    Please bear in mind that CentOS is not 100% compatible with Linux. CentOS is trying to be as similar to Red Hat as possible. I could say that CentOS is 99% compatible with Linux Red Hat. For those who want to learn Red Hat administration, CentOS is the choice because you can download it for free. In the enterprise market, some companies try out CentOS before adopting Linux Red Hat. There are some companies who would not like to pay for updates and support would use CentOS operationally.

    Mobile Distribution: Knoppix and DSL

    Beside the two popular desktop distributions Fedora and Ubuntu, I would like to introduce you to some light weight and mobile distribution. Such distribution is not rich in software but it is good enough for simple usage. Knoppix contains in a bootable CD with a collection of GNU/Linux software. There is no need to install Knoppix to the hard disk as you can boot it up from CD.

    Another mobile distribution is DSL (Damn Small Linux). It is derived from Knoppix and it is much smaller in size. It contains only 50MB and could be stored in a thumb drive. Mobile distribution could be used for demonstrative or educational purpose. However, Linux administrator uses it frequently for hardware troubleshooting or repair.

    Distribution for Hardcore Geek: Gentoo and LFS

    Gentoo Linux was designed for power users. Its installation could be cumbersome although recently it includes an installer to simplify the installation. If you would like to modify your operating system to your liking, Gentoo could be your choice. Gentoo also got a good support community with comprehensive documentation.  Gentoo users are more technically inclined. In fact, Gentoo forum provide a lot of the highly technical solution to the common problem in other distribution.

    If you want to build Linux from scratch, you should consider LFS project. Linux From Scratch (LFS) is a project that provides you with the steps necessary to build your own custom Linux system. The most important reason for using LFS is to learn how a Linux system works internally. Building an LFS system teaches you about all that makes Linux tick, how things work together, and depend on each other. Along the way you could customize it to your own taste and needs.


    Finally, I would like to mention Debian. Before Ubuntu arrives, Debian got the largest support community with a large collection of software. Debian also got the largest group of developers working on the project. The existence of Ubuntu, which uses the base code of Debian, split up the manpower and resource from Debian. In fact, a lots of other Linux distribution are derived from Debian.


    With all the different Linux distributions mentioned above. I would like to highlight that the usage between these distributions can be very different especially in the area of software installation and distribution. We can categorize most Linux distribution into 2 classes.

    The first class is the Red Hat class of distributions. Red Hat uses rpm files to package their software and it uses yum for software update and distribution. Red Hat class distribution includes Linux Red Hat, Fedora and CentOS.

    The other class, is the Debian class of distributions. Obviously, these distributions use the base code of Debian. Debian uses deb package for software packaging and it uses apt-get for updates and distributions. Debian class of Linux includes Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Knoppix and DSL (via Knoppix).

    I hope the analysis above will help you to make up your mind on which Linux distribution to choose.

    Basic Network Configuration in Linux

    December 14, 2009

    This network configuration guide is based on Fedora.

    Configuration Tools

    Text console configuration tool:

    • /usr/sbin/system-config-network-tui
    • /sbin/ifconfig

    Using ifconfig:

    • ifconfig – display running network configuration
    • ifconfig -a – display all (running or not running network device) network configuration
    • ifconfig <interface> up – bring up the specified interface network
    • ifconfig <interface> down – bring down the specified interface network
    • ifconfig eth0 netmask – setup a network interface with a specific IP address and sub-net mask
    • For further usage check #man ifconfig

    Network Configuration Files

    /etc/sysconfig/network – Defines your network and some of its characteristics.

    The settings are:

    • NETWORKING=yes
    • HOSTNAME=localhost.localdomain

    /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth* – This is a configuration file for each network interface card. For eth0 the path would be /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

    The settings are permanent; some of the entries are shown below:

    • DEVICE=eth0
    • HWADDR=00:03:10:22:45
    • #For permanent fixed IP address
    • IPADDR=
    • NETMASK=
    • ONBOOT=yes
    • BOOTPROTO=none

    /etc/networks – Provides a database of network names with network addresses similar to the /etc/hosts file.

    The settings are:

    • Default
    • Loopback
    • Link-local

    /etc/hosts – Defines local hosts.

    The settings are:

    •  localhost  localhost.localdomain
    •  mymachine.mycompany.com mymachine

    /etc/host.conf – Specifies order to search for host name for name resolution.

    The settings are:

    • Multi on
    • Order hosts, bind

    /etc/resolv.conf – Contains the address of name server

    The settings are:

    • Nameserver your.isp.name.server

    Configuring Ethernet Manually

    Fixed IP

    • Ifconfig to set IP address and bring up the network card

    #ifconfig eth0 netmask up

    • To setup the network routing

    #route add -net netmask eth0

    • Use route add or ip to add default gateway

    #route add default gw eth0

    • DNS for the network

    Add “nameserver” at /etc/resolve.conf

    • Note: Please note that the above measure is temporary. To permanently set ip address, gateway and dns use system-config-network-tui.
    • Once you set fixed IP, netmask, gateway and DNS. The information will be recorded in etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth* as follows;
      • DEVICE=eth0
      • HWADDR=00:05:20:15:36
      • #For permanent fixed IP address
      • IPADDR=
      • NETMASK=
      • ONBOOT=no
      • BOOTPROTO=none
    • Note: If you have hard coded fixed IP in the config file ifcfg-eth*, if you type #ifconfig eth0 up, it will not configure the fix IP from the file, the eth0 is up with no address assigned.
    • Therefore, a proper way to completely bring up and down the network interface card (NIC) is to use #ifup and #ifdown instead of ifconfig.
    • If eth0 is down for some reason, using #ifup eth0 will turn on the NIC with all address, gatway and DNS configure in the file
    • The console utility (system-config-network-tui) do not have the ability to set the configuration such that eth0 is turn on during startup, to do this we must manually change to ONBOOT=yes.
    • If eth0 still will not turn on during startup; this is because the service network is not turn on.
    • To turn on the network service during startup, use the command #service network start
    • To permently turn on the network service #chkconfig network on

    DHCP Client

    • If inside the file ifcfg-eth0,the entry ‘BOOTPROTO = none’ or there is no entry on BOOTPROTO use the following:
      • #ifup eth0
      • #dhclient
    • If inside the file ifcfg-eth0, the entry ‘BOOTPROTO = dhcp’ use the following:
      • #ifup eth0
    • Note: To configure BOOTPROTO just run the utilities system-config-network-tui
    • However, the console utility do not have the ability to set the configuration such that eth0 is turn on during startup, to do this we must manually change the file etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth*; ONBOOT=yes
    • Then make sure service Network is started and set to turn on permanently with the command #chkconfig network on

    Alternative method of starting network

    • Add the following at /etc/rc.d/rc.local
      • # ifup eth0
    • or
      • # dhclient eth0
    • Note: Using local startup script, there is no need to turn on network services

    Network Manager (New)

    • A new way of managing network is to install the package NetworkManager which does the management of network automatically.
    • NetworkManager is designed to replace all other network configuration. It includes all types of network from Ethernet to wireless network.
    • Use the command #yum install NetworkManager
    • Using NetworkManager, you still need tp ensure that the settings for eth* is setup properply. You need to ensure that ONBOOT=yes.


    Fedora 12 Software Installation and Configuration Guide

    December 10, 2009

    Updating Fedora (32-bit/64-bit)

    • Updating Fedora is as easy as Windows and it is automated. You will notice a message indicate that you need to update the OS.
    • Follow the direction in the message will bring to the update manager and follow the instruction.
    • You can also use command yum to update the system.
    • Open a terminal window, type $su
    • Enter root password
    • Type #yum update

    Installation and Configuration of Commonly used Applications (32-bit/64-bit)

    • Most of the popular applications are preloaded with Fedora; you might need to add some plug-ins.
    • For additional software you can install using System >> Administration >> Add/Remove Software. The utility will search for the application you intended, download it and install it automatically.
    • You can also use command line (yum) to install the software packages.
    • Fedora uses yum to install and update its software. When connected to the internet it will automatically determine all application dependencies.

    Configuring Yum

    • Yum automatically connect to the official mirror sites of Fedora to retrieve latest software packages.
    • You might want to add additional repositories that provide additional software. Two additional sites are recommended, one is rpmfusion.org, the other is livna.org

    To setup repos from rpmfusion:

    Setting up repos from livna.org

    Installing Yum plugins

    • Yum has many plugins available, the default plugins is presto. This plugins reduce download time by downloading only the changes in the software packages.
    • I would also recommended you to install the fastestmirror plugin, it speeds up downloads by attempting to find faster sources.
    • To install the plugin:# yum install yum-plugin-fastestmirror

    Using Yum

    • To install software using yum just use the command: #yum install <software package>
    • To find out details about the software packages use the command: #yum info <keyword/name software package>
    • You can also perform group install using #yum groupinstall <software group>

    Web Browsing

    • Firefox is preloaded with Fedora; you just need to install additional plug-ins.

    Firefox Plug-ins: Google Toolbar

    • Go to the site where Google toolbar is hosted and install directly from the web.

    Productivity Suite

    • OpenOffice is not included in the LiveCD. To install it go to System >> Administration >> Add/Remove Software.
    • Type openoffice in the search box and click find. With the list given, select the OpenOffice package you want.
    • You also can use command line as follows:
      • #yum install -y openoffice.org-impress
      • #yum install -y openoffice.org-calc
      • #yum install -y openoffice.org-writer


    There a a couple of useful utilities such as:
    • Gparted is a utility that manages disk partition. You can resize your disk partition on the fly. To install this software:
      • #yum install -y gparted
    • Gnochm is a chm viewer. The command to install this utilities is:
      • #yum install -y gnochm
    • Unrar is a utility to unpack rar compressed folders. Issue the command:
      • #yum install -y unrar
    • GCC is GNU C/C++ compiler. Kernel-devel is the kernel headers required to compile kernel files. Both files are required to rebuilt kernel or install drivers.
      • #yum install -y gcc kernel-devel

    PDF Document

    • Fedora has default PDF reader (evince) so no installation is required.
    • For 32-bit OS, you might consider install Adobe PDF reader or Foxit PDF reader.
    • Fedora has built in PDF writer; here is the direction of how to use it.
      • For Firefox, select print >> print to file, make sure you specify the document type as PDF and also specify the filename and location of the file.
      • For OpenOffice, use ‘Export to PDF’ function.
    • You will need a PDF writer if you intend to use it on any other application that do not have print to PDF or export to PDF capabilities. In this case, you need to install cups-pdf.
    • The command line to install is #yum install cups-pdf. Please search the web for direction of usage and configuration.

    Playing Multimedia Files

    • To play the most common multimedia formats, including MP3, Mpeg, rm, QuickTime, WMA and WMV, you need to install additional packages; when you install VLC Media Player, yum install will includes all the necessary codec.
    • Playing DVD is more complicated because it involves restricted format. In addition to media player such as Xine or VLC, you need to install CSS Packages.
    • Although Fedora comes with Totem Movie Player, it lacks DVD functions such as navigation through the menu, titles etc. I would recommend using VLC Player or Xine.

    Installing Media Player

    • To install VLC Media Player: #yum install vlc
    • To set VLC as the default player, open any File Browser. Select Edit >> Preference >> Media
    • To install Xine: #yum install xine xine-lib-extras xine-lib-extras-freeworld

    Check Region Setting

    • To check your region setting you need the package “regionset”.
    • Open a terminal window with root access
    • #yum install regionset
    • After installation, from command line enter: $regionset. Your region setting will be shown.

    Installing CSS Packages

    • To install the CSS packages use the command: #yum install libdvdcss

    DVD Ripping

    • In the event you need to rip or backup your DVD; you can install various DVD ripper.
    • In this section we will install k9copy
    • #yum install k9copy
    • Please search for k9copy on direction of usage.


    Installing Adobe Flash Player

    Pre-Installation Setup (32-bit/64-bit)

    • Download the yum configuration from http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer/ and select ‘YUM for Linux’
    • Save the rpm file ‘adobe-release-i386-1.0-1.noarch.rpm’. Quit your browser.
    • Open a terminal window and enter su. Enter the root password to gain root access.
    • Enter #rpm -vhi adobe-release-i386-1.0-1.noarch.rpm
    • Enter #rpm – -import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-adobe-linux
    • The above command setup the adobe repository so that you could use yum to download the lastest from adobe repository.
    • To verify the setup of the repository data make sure that the file /etc/yum.repos.d/adobe-linux-i386.repo is available

    Installing Flash Player (32-bit)

    • For 32-bit Fedora issue the command:
      • #yum install flash-plugin nspluginwrapper alsa-plugins-pulseaudio libcurl
    • Launch your browser to verify in the flash player is properly installed.

    Installing Flash Player (64-bit)

    • For 64-bit Fedora, you need to install a 32-bit plugin that will work with the 64-bit browser by being “wrapped” with nspluginwrapper. The command is:
      • #yum install flash-plugin nspluginwrapper.x86_64 nspluginwrapper.i686 alsa-plugins-pulseaudio.i686 libcurl.i686
    • Launch your browser to verify in the flash player is properly installed.


    Installing Adobe AIR

    Pre-Installation Setup A (32-bit/64-bit)

    • Adobe AIR 1.5 for Linux is available at http://get.adobe.com/air/. The file name is ‘AdobeAIRInstaller.bin’
    • You might want to setup the installation log so that you could review the log if you encounter any problem. To do this, you need to create the log file at your home directory instead of root. Do not use root access for the following command:
      • $touch ~/.airinstall.log
      • $touch ~/.airappinstall.log
    • You need to change the permission of AdobeAIRInstaller.bin. You need root access to change permission.
      • #chmod +x AdobeAIRInstaller.bin

    Pre-Installation Setup B (32-bit)

    • For 32-bit installation of Adobe AIR. You need to install xterm:
      • #yum install xterm

    Pre-Installation Setup B (64-bit)

    • For 64-bit installation, we are installing 32-bit Adobe AIR in the 64-bit OS. Addition libraries and software are required as follows:
      • #yum install -y gtk2-devel.i686 nss.i686 nss-softokn.i686 libxml2-devel.i686 libxslt.i686 gnome-keyring.i686 rpm-devel.i686 alsa-plugins-pulseaudio.i686 PackageKit-gtk-module.i686 libXt.i686 gtk2-engines.i686 libcanberra-gtk2.i686 xterm

    Running Adobe AIR Installation Program (32-bit/64-bit)

    • This is an interactive setup. For any error please refer to the .airinstall.log located at your home directory. You launch installation program from the folder where the software is located. Install the program as follows:
      • ./AdobeAIRInstaller.bin

    Problems Running AIR Application (32-bit/64-bit)

    • On Fedora 12, you would not be able to install or run any AIR application. This is probably due to SELinux security policy.
    • To resolve this issue, we need to rename the crypt folder under the certificates folder. Use the following command:
      • #mv /etc/opt/Adobe/certificates/crypt /etc/opt/Adobe/certificates/crypt_bkp

    Installing AIR Application (32-bit/64-bit)

    • You should be able to install any AIR application directly from the web.
    • During the installation, user will be prompt for root password.

    Removing AIR Application (32-bit/64-bit)

    • Removing AIR application is a bit tricky. First you need to search for the full application name as follows:
      • #rpm -qa | grep twhirl
    • Then you remove the application using rpm as follows:
      • #rpm -e de.makesoft.twhirl.0ea062bc275e7ed1e6ec3762effd73c7158adf33.1-0.9.4-1.i386
    • Alternatively, you can use the following command to erase and query the application name at the same time.
      • #rpm -e `rpm -qa | grep twhirl`
      • #rpm -e `rpm -qa | grep tweetdeck`
      • Note: Please note that the quote is a back tick, the key is above [Tab] key.


    Installing Real Player

    Get Real Player 11 for Linux

    Installing Real Player for 32-bit Fedora

    • To install Real Player, you need to install redhat-lsb before installing the player:
      • #yum install -y redhat-lsb
      • #rpm -ivh RealPlayer11GOLD.rpm

    Installing Real Player for 64-bit Fedora

    • Since we are installing the 32-bit Player into 64-bit OS, we need to install 32-bit version of lsb as well:
      • #yum install -y redhat-lsb redhat-lsb.i686
      • #rpm -ivh RealPlayer11GOLD.rpm

    Note: Alternatively, you could use mplayer or vlc player instead of installing Real Player. I found that mplayer or vlc player do not play the rm files well.


    Installing Virtual Box (32-bit/64-bit)

    Installing VirtualBox on Fedora 12 Using YUM

    1. Before installation please make sure that you are using the latest kernel. If you have just updated a new kernel, you must boot into the new kernel before proceed with the installation.
    2. First you need to download the repository file for yum located at http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/rpm/fedora/virtualbox.repo
    3. Then you need to move or copy the repo file to yum depository folder:
    4. #mv virtualbox.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/
    5. Install dkms using the command: #yum install dkms
    6. Proceed with the command: #yum install VirtualBox
    7. Reboot the PC since kernel file has been modified

    Installing Linux Guest

    You can install any guest OS including Windows or other distribution of Linux. Please consult the installation guide on installing the operating system you want.

    Installing Linux Guest Addition

    Before installing Linux Guest Addition, make sure the guest OS is updated.

    • To install Linux guest addition, you’ll need GCC compiler, Linux kernel header and dkms. Use the command:
      • #yum install gcc kernel-devel dkms
    • Next, you need to mount the CD ISO and proceed to the main folder. Run the appropriate guest addition base on your guest OS architecture. For 32-bit Linux guest use:
      • #./VBoxLinuxAdditions-x86.run
    • For 64-bit Linux Guest use the program below:
      • #./VBoxLinuxAdditions-amd64.run

    After installation of guest additions, you can move your mouse freely between guest and host OS. You can expand your screen size by resizing the virtual OS windows.

    Sharing Folder with Host System

    To share network folders, you need to configure a share folder with a share name in the virtual machine settings.

    • Then in Linux, you need to mount the share folder using VirtualBox file system:
      • #mount –t vboxfs name_of_share_folder /mnt/mount_point
    • Please note that the above mounted folder is owned by root. To allow user to own the files and folder use the command:
      • #mount -t vboxsf -o uid=1000,gid=1000 name_of_share_folder /mnt/mount_point
      • Where uid is the user id and gid is the group id.
    • If you want to have it mount automatically upon each boot, put the mount command in /etc/rc.local. Using /etc/fstab has little effect, because that  file is processed before the SF module is loaded and will fail to mount the share.


    Installing Compiz (32-bit/64-bit)

    Installing Proprietary Nvidia Driver

    Important: This procedure involves in modifying the kernel. You need to reboot the PC if you have just updated your kernel before starting this procedure.

    • Open a terminal with root access. Then proceed with the following command:
      • #yum install kmod-nvidia xorg-x11-drv-nvidia
    • After installing the drivers, you need to change some security setting on SELinux:
      • #setsebool -P allow_execstack on
    • Then you need to perform the following to disabled nouveau driver:
      • #mv /boot/initramfs-$(uname -r).img /boot/initramfs-$(uname -r)-nouveau.img
      • #dracut /boot/initramfs-$(uname -r).img $(uname -r)

    Important: Reboot your PC and ensure that the Nvidia driver is working properly

    Installing Compiz

    • Issue the following command to install Compiz:
      • #yum install emerald-themes compiz-fusion-extras emerald compiz-fusion compiz-manager compiz-fusion-extras-gnome gnome-compiz-manager libcompizconfig compiz-fusion-gnome ccsm

    Configuring Compiz

    You can change the settings using CompizConfig Settings Manager (ccsm) under System >> Preference. However, due to some bug, the changes in ccsm will not affect the system. To rectify this problem you need to change the script file for Compiz in /usr/bin/compiz-gtk

    • Once you open this file, change the following line from:
      • exec compiz –ignore-desktop-hints glib gconf gnomecompat $@
    • to:
      • exec compiz –ignore-desktop-hints glib gconf gnomecompat ccp $@

    Enabling, Configuring and Using Compiz

    • You enabled Compiz by select System >> Preference >> Desktop Effect. Choose Compiz.
    • You can change the effects using System >> Preference >> CompizConfig Settings Manager
    • To rotate the Window Cube, press Ctrl+Alt and simultaneously use your mouse to rotate the window.